C# provides many operators which are widely used in various applications depending upon their use. This operators are very basic and everyone knows about it but few thing i wanted to highlight in this post which might not known to many developers. So In this post i will explain few important things about Logical and Bitwise AND/OR/XOR operators with example.
Logical AND
(&&) Operator
Logical AND performs Boolean operation with two expression and returns true if both expressions are true and returns false if any one expression is false. If first expression is false then it will not check another expression and returns false. Let’s have a look on below code snippet.
int x = 3;
int y = 0;
if ((y > x) && (x / y > 0))
Console.WriteLine("Logical AND
Operation");
The above
code will run and compile successfully. In above code second expression seems
to throw Dividebyzero exception but first expression returns false so it will not
evaluate second expression and assume that first expression is false so
entire expression is false.
Logical OR ()
Operator
If we
perform logical OR in above example, if first expression is true then it will
not evaluate second expression. In logical OR any one expression must be true if
first expression is true then others will be skipped.
Note  The
disadvantage of logical operators are if second expression doesn’t evaluate then
there might be possibility for bug in application. These types of bugs are
difficult to find. Sometimes logical operators are called as short circuit
operators as well.
Bitwise AND (&) operator
Bitwise operator
can operate on integral and Boolean expression. They can operate with two
operands and both operands must be evaluated. If first expression returns false even though
it will evaluates second expression. Let's have a look on below code.
int x = 3;
int y = 0;
if ((y > x) & (x / y > 0))
Console.WriteLine("Bitwise AND Operation");
The above
code will throw an exception because bitwise (&) AND evaluates both expressions and as per above code second expression throws dividebyzero exception.
This above example shows bitwise Boolean condition. There are four possible
values for Boolean bitwise AND (&) operations.
Bitwise
AND (&)


Expression 1

Expression 2

Result

True

True

True

True

False

False

False

True

False

False

False

False

Similarly we
can perform bitwise AND on integral numbers as well. This bitwise AND on
integral numbers will first convert numbers into binary and then perform AND
operations on it. Let’s have a look on below code.
int x = 5; // Binary Equivalent
 0101
int y = 7; // Binary Equivalent
 0111
// 0101
//
& 0111
// 
// 0101
int result = x & y; //output = 5
The above
code demonstrates bitwise AND (&) operation between variable x and y. The binary equivalent of x is 0101
and y is 0111. Now bitwise AND (&) operation will perform AND between binary values of x and y as displayed in commented code
above. The result will return 5 in decimal number.
Bitwise OR ()
operator
Similarly we
can perform Bitwise OR between two operands like bitwise AND. Bitwise OR
performs OR operation on binary equivalent numbers. Let’s have look on below
code which is modified version of above code.
int x = 5; // Binary Equivalent
 0101
int y = 7; // Binary Equivalent
 0111
// 0101
//
 0111
// 
// 0111
int result = x  y; //output = 7
In above
code Bitwise OR will be applied to the binary equivalent numbers of x and y
values. Below is the table which explains bitwise OR results between two
expressions.
Bitwise
OR ()


Expression 1

Expression 2

Result

True

True

True

True

False

True

False

True

True

False

False

False

Bitwise Exclusive
OR (^) operator
Bitwise
Exclusive OR can be applied to two operands and behave similar to Bitwise AND/OR. This
performs XOR operation between binary equivalent numbers. Below table explains
bitwise XOR results between two expressions.
Bitwise
XOR


Expression 1

Expression 2

Result

True

True

False

True

False

True

False

True

True

False

False

False

Usage of Bitwise Operators
Bitwise
operators are used in multiple places and also called as fundamental operators
on computers. Below are few areas where bitwise operators majorly used.
 Low level programming
 Hardware device drivers creation
 Creating protocols
 Communicating with ports and sockets
 Graphics driver
 Gaming
 Communicating with physical devices
 Encryption
 Data Compression
Hope this
post helps you to understand basic concept of Logical and Bitwise Operators in
Dotnet. Please leave your feedback in comments section below.
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